100 kW Micro-Hydro Power Plant Operate in Island Mode and Grid Connected Mode

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1. Abstract 1
2. Introduction 1
3. General principle of micro hydro 2
4. Site configurations 2
5. Water pressure or 'head' 3
5.1. Measurement of gross head 3
5.2. Estimation of net head 3
5.3. Estimation of plant capacity and energy output 4
5.4. Firm energy 6
6. Hydraulic structures 6
6.1. Structures for storage and water intake 6
6.1.1. Dams 6
6.1.2. Weirs 6
6.1.3. Spillways 6
6.1.4. Energy dissipators 7
6.1.5. Low level outlets 7
6.1.6. Intake structures 7
6.1.7. Power intake 7
6.2. Penstocks 7
7. Electromechanical equipment 8
7.1. Powerhouse 8
7.2. Hydraulic turbines 8
7.2.1. Classification criteria 
on the basis of the flow regime in the turbine 8
7.2.1.1 Impulse turbines 9
7.2.1.1.1 Pelton turbines 9
7.2.1.1.2. Turgo turbines 10
7.2.1.1.3. Cross-flow turbines 10
7.2.1.2 Reaction turbines 11
7.2.1.2.1. Francis turbines 11
7.2.1.2.2. Kaplan and propeller turbines 13
7.2.2. Turbine selection criteria 13
7.2.2.1. Net head 13
7.2.2.2. Rotational speed 14
7.2.2.3. Runaway speed 14
7.2.3. Turbine efficiency 15
7.2.4. Speed increasers 15
7.3. Generators 15
7.3.1. Generator configurations 16
7.3.2. Exciters 16
7.3.2.1. Rotating exciters 16
7.3.2.2. Brushless exciters 16
7.3.2.3. Static exciters 17
7.3.3. Voltage regulation and synchronization 17
7.3.3.1. Asynchronous generators 17
7.3.3.2. Synchronous generators 17
7.3.4. Turbine control 17
7.3.5. Speed Governors 18
7.3.6. Automatic control 19
8. Advantages and Disadvantages of MHP plants 20
8.1. Advantages of Micro Hydro 20
8.2. Disadvantages of Micro Hydro 20
PART II - Design
9. Project objective 22
10. Design of micro-hydro power plant 22
11. Theoretical power output 22
12. Calculating the size of a single turbine 23
12.1. Calculation of water jet velocity 23
12.2. Calculation of runner tangential velocity 24
12.3. Construction proportions 26
12.3.1. Breadth and diameter of wheel 26
12.3.2. Speed of wheel 26
12.3.3. Thickness of jet 27
12.3.4. Spacing of blades in wheel 27
12.3.5. Number of blades 28
12.3.6. Radial rim width ( ) 28
12.3.7. Blade angle 28
12.3.8. Radius of blade curvatures 28
12.3.9. Inner radius 28
12.3.10. Distance of jet from centre of shaft 29
12.3.11. Distance of jet from inner periphery 29
12.4. Penstock diameter 30
13. Synchronous generators 32
13.1. Synchronous generators construction 32
13.2. Speed of rotation 33
13.3. Synchronous generator operating alone 34
13.3.1. The efect of load changes 
on syonchronous generator operating alone 34
13.4. Parallel operating of AC generators 34
13.4.1. Conditions required for paralleling 34
13.4.2. General procedure for paralleling generators 36
13.5. Operation of generators in parallel with large power systems 38
13.6. Synchronous generator ratings 39
13.7. The voltage, speed, and frequency ratings 39
13.8. Selection the synchronous generators 40


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1. Abstract
Small hydropower less than 100 kW that can be built on small rivers, which flows through or near their villages.
They have different characteristics, being influenced from the location on the water, construction material, drops of water turbines that convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy and then into electricity via generator and generating schemes used in the scheme of operation.
The purpose of this project is to design, modeling and performance analysis of a 100kW micro-hydro power plant, able to operate both in island mode and low-voltage grid-connected mode.
To achieve this, we designed a Banki-Michell turbine that is relatively easy to build, which has a rather high efficiency (80%) and can provide enough energy taken from the flow of water and turned into mechanical power, and latter being used to drive an synchronous generator.
The simulation model of project is obtained using MATLAB/SIMULINK environment for effectiveness of the study.
Simulation results are also provided.
2. Introduction
Hydraulic engineering is based on the principles of fluid mechanics. However until now there does not exist, and probably never will, a general methodology for the mathematical analysis of the movement of the fluids.
Based on the large amount of accumulated experience there exists many empirical relationships to achieve practical engineering solutions with the movement of the water, the fluid that concerns hydroelectricity.
All hydroelectric generation depends on falling water. The first step to develop a site must address the availability of an adequate water supply.
Turbines transform the potential energy of water to mechanical rotational energy, which in turn is transformed into electrical energy in the generators.
From the beginning of electricity production hydropower has been, and still is today, the first renewable source used to generate electricity. It is also considered a cheap, environmentally friendly source of energy.
The large majority of micro hydro plants are <<run-of-river>> schemes. These schemes do not
change the natural flow much and also does not have the environmental problems
such as resettlement and land inundation associated with large dams.
But the turbine generates when the water is available and provided by the river. When the river dries up and the flow falls below some predetermined amount, the generation ceases. This means, of course, that small independent schemes may not always be able to supply energy, unless they are so sized that there is always enough water.
This problem can be overcome in two ways. The first is by using any existing lakes or reservoir storage upstream. The second is by interconnecting the plant with the electricity supplier's grid. A grid is an interconnected network of power generating plants and transmission lines that supply power to a number of distributed consumers. Central grids cover a vast geographical area with a large number of generating plants and millions of
consumers. Isolated grids cover a smaller area which are not connected to a central grid and supply electricity to small towns and villages which are normally remote and far from larger load centres. 
3. General principle of micro hydro
Power generation from water depends upon a combination of head and flow. Both must be available to produce electricity. Water is diverted from a stream into a pipeline, where it is directed downhill and through the turbine (flow). The vertical drop (head) creates pressure at the bottom end of the pipeline. The pressurized water emerging from the end of the pipe creates the force that drives the turbine. The turbine in turn drives the generator where electrical power is produced. More flow or more head produces more electricity. 
Electrical power output will always be slightly less than water power input due to turbine and system inefficiencies.
Water pressure or Head is created by the difference in elevation between the water intake and the turbine. Head can be expressed as vertical distance (feet or meters), or as pressure.
Net head is the pressure available at the turbine when water is flowing, which will always be less than the pressure when the water flow is turned off (static head), due to the friction between the water and the pipe. Pipeline diameter also has an effect on net head.
Flow is quantity of water available, and is expressed as 'volume per unit of time', such as cubic metres per second (m3/s), or liters per minute (lpm). Design flow is the maximum flow for which the hydro system is designed. It will likely be less than the maximum flow of the stream (especially during the rainy season), more than the minimum flow, and a compromise between potential electrical output and system cost.
4. Site configurations
The objective of a hydro power scheme is to convert the potential energy of a mass of water, flowing in a stream with a certain fall (termed the head.), into electric energy at the lower end of the scheme, where the powerhouse is located. The power of the scheme is proportional to the flow and to the head. 
According to the head, schemes can be classified in three categories:
- High head: 100-m and above
- Medium head: 30 - 100 m
- Low head: 2 - 30 m
These ranges are are not rigid but are merely means of categorising sites.
Schemes can also be defined as
- Run-of-river schemes
- Schemes with the powerhouse located at the base of a dam
- Schemes integrated on an canal or in a water supply pipe


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Bibliografie

S. Gheorghiu 2010, Convertoare electromecanice,Ed. Academiei Navale "Mircea cel Batran" 
I. Boldea 2005, Synchronous generators, Ed. CRC
C. Penche 1998, Layman's guidebook on how to develop a small hydro site, Instituto Nacional de Investigacao Cientifica
O. Zia 2010, Design, fabrication and installation of a micro-hydro power plant, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, GIK Institute of Engineering Science & Technology
C. A. Mockmore 1949, The Banki Water Turbine, Oregon State College
EG&Idaho 1983, Microhydropower Handbook, NTIS
Hydropak 2004, Concept design and analysis of a packaged cross-flow turbine, DTI
Marelli Generators, Data Sheets Three Phase Synchronous Generators


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