1.Introduction 2.Etymology 3.History 3.1.Prehistoric Britain 3.2.Roman conquest of Britain 3.3.Anglo-Saxon England 3.4.Kingdom of England 4.Politics 5.Subdivisions 6.Geography 6.1.Climate 6.2.Major rivers 6.3.Major conurbations 7.Economics 8.Demographics 9.Culture 9.1.Architecture 9.2.Art 9.3.Cuisine 9.4.Literature 9.5.Sport 9.6.National holidays 10.Religion 11.Education 12.Transport 13.National symbols and insignia 13.1.St George's Cross 13.2.Three Lions coat of arms 13.3.The oak tree and the rose 14.National anthem 15.England Travel Guide 15.1.LONDON a)Landmarks b)Museums and Galleries c)Parks and Gardens d)Get around 15.2.BIRMINGHAM a)Museums and art galleries b)Parks and nature c)Religious buildings 15.3.BRISTOL 15.4.BRIGHTON 15.5.LIVERPOOL 15.6.MANCHESTER 15.7.NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE 15.8.NOTTINGHAM 15.9.YORK
1.Introduction England is a country to the northwest of Continental Europe and is the largest and most populous constituent country of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Its inhabitants account for more than 85% of the total population of the United Kingdom, whilst the mainland territory of England occupies most of the southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain and shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. Elsewhere, it is bordered by the North Sea, Irish Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and English Channel. England became a unified state during the tenth century and takes its name from the Angles -- one of a number of Germanic tribes who settled in the territory during the fifth and sixth centuries. The capital city of England is London, which is the largest city in Britain and largest city in the European Union. England ranks among the most influential and far-reaching centres of cultural development in the history of the world. It is the place of origin of both the English language and the Church of England, and English law forms the basis of the legal systems of many countries. It was the historic centre of the British Empire. It was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution and was the first country in the world to become industrialised. England is home to the Royal Society, which laid the foundations of modern experimental science. England was the world's first parliamentary democracy and consequently many constitutional, governmental and legal innovations that had their origin in England have been widely adopted by other nations.The Kingdom of England was a separate state until 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union resulted in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. Flag of England The Flag of England is the St George's Cross. The red cross appeared in as an emblem of England during the Middle Ages and the Crusades and is one of the earliest known emblems representing England. It achieved status as the national flag of England during the 16th century. Saint George became the patron saint of England in the 13th century, and the legend of Saint George slaying a dragon dates from the 12th century. Union When the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland were united in a personal union under James VI/I, the Cross of Saint George was combined with the Cross of St. Andrew (representing Scotland) to form the original Union Flag (or "Union Jack"). This flag later became the national flag of the Kingdom of Great Britain, and was combined with the flag of St. Patrick (representing Ireland) in 1801, producing the Union Flag of the United Kingdom. 2.Etymology England is named after the Angles, the largest of a number of Germanic tribes who settled in England in the fifth and sixth centuries, who are believed to have originated in the peninsula of Angeln, in modern-day northern Germany. Their name has had a variety of different spellings. The earliest known reference to these people is under the name Anglii by Tacitus in chapter 40 of his Germania, written around 98. He gives no precise indication of their geographical position within Germania, but states that, together with six other tribes, they worshipped a goddess named Nerthus, whose sanctuary was situated on "an island in the Ocean." According to the Oxford English Dictionary entry, the word Angle is derived from the same root as the word angle, originally meaning a fish hook and in this instance referring to the shape of the district where the Angles originated.
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