Acid rain Wildlife extinction Pollution of water, air and soil Ecology Deforestation
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure. Acid rain is caused by emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. Governments have made efforts since the 1970s to reduce the release of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere with positive results. Nitrogen oxides can also be produced naturally by lightning strikes and sulfur dioxide is produced by volcanic eruptions. The chemicals in acid rain can cause paint to peel, corrosion of steel structures such as bridges, and erosion of stone statues. Surface water and aquatic animals Soils Forests and other vegetation Human health Adverse effects on building that use stone, such as marble and limestone. In biology and ecology, extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms, normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. Humans play a tremendous role in wildlife extinction. Habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation are the leading factors that cause wildlife extinction to occur. The second largest threat is from introducing nonnative species into ecosystems. Many species are accidentally introduced. Many are introduced because of their value as a food source and as pest control.
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