INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION 3 1.1 IOT IN AUTOMOTIVE FIELD 3 1.2 IOT IN FLEET MANAGEMENT 3 CHAPTER 2. VEHICLES MAINTENANCE SYSTEM 4 2.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 4 2.2 BENEFITS OF FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 4 2.3 EXISTING SOLUTIONS 5 2.4 PROPOSED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE 5 2.4.1 Block diagram 5 2.4.2 Requirements for the Perception Layer 6 2.4.3 Requirements for the Network Layer 7 2.4.4 Requirements for the Application Layer 7 CHAPTER 3. HARDWARE COMPONENTS 8 3.1 SENSORS / TRANSDUCERS 8 3.1.1 Temperature sensor 8 3.1.2 Pressure sensor 10 3.1.3 Speed sensor 12 3.2 DEVELOPMENT BOARD 14 3.2.1 Raspberry Pi 4 14 3.2.2 Arduino Uno Rev3 15 3.2.3 Adafruit Metro 16 3.3 COMMUNICATION DEVICES 17 CHAPTER 4. CLOUD PLATFORM 19 4.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 19 4.2 IOT SERVICES 19 CHAPTER 5. MOBILE APPLICATION SOLUTION 21 5.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 21 5.2 ELECTRICAL SCHEME 21 5.3 DATABASE 22 5.4 SOFTWARE CODE 23 CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSION 26 ABBREVIATIONS 27 REFERENCES 28 ANNEX 2 32 ANNEX 3 33 ANNEX 4 34 ANNEX 5 36 ANNEX 6 37 ANNEX 7 39 ANNEX 8 41 ANNEX 9 42 ANNEX 10 44 ANNEX 11 45 ANNEX 12 46 ANNEX 13 47
Introduction The internet of things, or IoT, is a network of connected computing devices, mechanical and digital machinery, items, animals, or people that may exchange data across a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. The term "thing" refers to any natural or artificial object that can be given an Internet Protocol (IP) address and has the ability to transfer data over a network, including people with implanted heart monitors, farm animals with biochip transponders, cars with built-in tire pressure monitors, and other examples. Organizations across a range of industries are increasingly utilizing IoT to run more smoothly, better understand their consumers to provide better customer service, boost decision-making, and raise the value of the company. IoT-enabled telematics support numerous use cases to improve fleet management, such as: 1. Driver management Hi-tech driver management systems enabled with backup cameras and blind-spot assistant alert drivers about the objects blocking the way, people crossing the road or dangerously driven vehicles. Moreover, in-cabin cameras can alert and recommend drivers to stop and take rest when needed. In case of an accident, video data can help in fault detection. Driver management solutions powered with computer vision can also help to monitor drivers for distraction and drowsiness. Such applications can notify the nearest control operation center of the driver’s condition in real-time. 2. Fleet maintenance The in-built sensors of a vehicle can detect when to change the oil, brake pads, battery or rotate tires. Such advanced applications help the crew to address any issue well ahead of time. It also reduces costs by detecting and preventing damaged motors, dead and old batteries, dysfunctional brakes and less tractable tires. A single predictive maintenance platform can run multiple workloads enabling access to sensors, cameras and other devices. Managers can quickly deploy such applications and reduce service costs by converging workloads. Predictive maintenance leads to improved fuel efficiency and lowers costs. The data gathered from the fleet is stored in a cloud application. The data is then processed through different analytics and conceptualized into a visual format. Fleet operators can easily access the data to monitor various parameters associated with their vehicles. 3. Vehicle monitoring Vehicles integrated with IoT and in-built sensors help provide a clear view of the surroundings to detect moving people, objects, and other vehicles. Such systems can also work as a driving coach and alert the driver and prevent accidents. 4. Asset and cargo management IoT and telematics play a significant role in supply chain and logistics. The embedded sensors ensure cargo security during transportation by constant temperature control, surveillance and vibration sensors. IoT helps keep a vehicle’s cargo hold at a set temperature and maintains food items, medications, vaccines, and other perishable items stay fresh and consumable. The cargo surveillance, assessing inside and outside the vehicle, enables operators to ensure what should be on the truck and what order. The monitoring also confirms if any cargo is lost or stolen. The vibration sensors maintain the security of fragile goods and ensure that they won’t break during transportation. 5. Passenger information Vehicles related to passengers like buses and other passenger load vehicles integrated with passenger information systems can provide Wi-Fi access to deliver helpful information about routes and other services. IoT-enabled systems can also detect and notify social distancing guidelines that every passenger must follow. The video surveillance system can help to monitor and report face mask usage inside the vehicle. Moreover, the passenger experience is enhanced by integrating a touchless ticketing system in the buses. Telematics system connects vehicles, passengers, transit stations with comprehensive real-time information. Every car and station is equipped with sensors and communication appliances to provide passengers information and video footage for security staff. In this project, the chosen field of implementation is the Automotive, which is a very vast and continuously growing industry. Because the world is moving fast, so there is no time to waste, and the pollution restrictions are increasing, our vehicles should always be in good technical condition and to respect all the rules in force. For the area of applicability, we need to take a look at the car fleets of companies, or public transport institutions, and personal cars that needs to be in a good technical condition. These vehicles also require maintenance, which if not done on time can cause breakdowns leading to loss of even more time and money or higher carbon dioxide emissions.
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